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There are various parking structures available and always close to an attraction such as the various churches or museums. Street parking is available (unless otherwise stated), however be sure to get a ticket from the machine located near the parking spot (look for the sign "Parkscheine" or "Parkschein-Automat" and always have some change) and place this visibly in your car before you go on your way to avoid any fines. Some parking lots do not have any machines but they require a parking disk. This is usually indicated by a sign on the parking lot which limits the time you can park, e.g. "max. 1 Stunde", "2 Std.", "Parken mit Parkscheibe in gekennzeichneten Flächen 1 Stunde". Usually car rental agencies leave such a disk in their cars. Yet, if you cannot find one in your car, you can get them at most gas stations. Just turn the disk to your arrival time and place it visibly on the car's dashboard. Another option are several parking garages throughout most of the bigger cities. Look for the sign "Frei" (free) or "Besetzt" (no parking available at the moment). The sign "Einfahrt" will bring you to the entry and the sign "Ausfahrt" will guide your way out.
Having a car to take you from city to city is useful, yet once you are in the city center, most major attractions will be within walking distance. Maps and directions will be available at your hotel.
An extra tip: make sure you are not caught jaywalking, always cross the street when the signal permits you to. You can be fined a significant amount for not following the regulations on the road, even as a pedestrian.
More on parking laws can be found at your rental car dealership, just request more information there.